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Sub-Arctic Wildflowers and Plants

With over 500 varieties of vascular plants, Churchill's northern and arctic wildflowers are as diverse as they are beautiful. This transitional zone between the northern boreal forest and southern extremes of arctic tundra present the opportunity to find a wide variety of plants in a relatively small area.

An excellent resource for plants is Wildflowers of Churchill and the Hudson Bay Region by Karen L. Johnston which provides the basis for the entry below.

Plant Communities on Sand and Clay

Foreshore Area: Strand and Salt Marsh Communities

  • Smooth Orache - Atriplex glabriuscula
  • Hairgrass-Like Grass - Calamagrostis deschampsoides
  • Seaside Sedge - Carex maritima
  • Arctic Chrysanthemum - Chrysanthemum arcticum
  • Scurvy-Grass - Cochlearia officinalis
  • Fisher's Dupontia - Dupontia fisheri
  • Sea-Beach Sandwort - Honckenya peploides
  • Sea-Shore Chamomile - Matricaria ambigua
  • Seaside Lungwort - Mertensia maritima
  • Seaside Plantain - Plantago juncoides
  • Egede's Cinquefoil - Potenitilla egedii
  • Seaside Buttercup - Ranunculus cymbalaria
  • Four-Leaved Mare's Tail - Rubus chamaemorus
  • Seaside Buttercup - Ranunculus cymbalaria
  • Seaside Arrow-Grass - Triglochin maritima

Dune Communities

  • Yarrow - Achillea nigrescens
  • Pygmyflower - Androsace septentrionalis
  • Red Bearberry - Arctostaphylos alpina
  • Sand-Dwelling Rock-Cress - Arabis arenicola
  • Glacier Sedge - Carex glacialis
  • Sheathed Sedge - Carex vaginata
  • Purple Paintbrush - Castilleja raupii
  • Arctic Chrysanthemum - Chrysanthemum arcticum
  • White Mountain-Avens - Dryas integrifolia
  • Sea-Lime Grass - Elymus arenarius
  • Fireweed - Epilobium angustifolium
  • Broad-Leaved Fireweed - Epilobium latifolium
  • Alpine Fescue - Festuca brachyphylla
  • Sweet Vetch - Hedysarium mackenzii
  • Sea-Shore Chamomile - Matricaria ambigua
  • Large Grass-of-Parnassus - Parnassia palustris
  • Alpine Bistort - Polygonum viviparum
  • Branched and Beautiful Cinquefoils - Potentilla multifida
  • Greenland Primrose - Primual egalikensis
  • Erect Primrose - Primula stricta
  • Stemless Raspberry - Rubus acaulis
  • Snow Willow - Salix reticulata
  • Canada Buffaloberry - Shepherdia canadensis
  • Spike Trisetum - Trisetum spicatum

Sandy Pools

  • Dwarf Scouring-Rush - Equisetum variegatum
  • Common Mare's Tail - Hippuris vulgaris
  • Arctic Rush - Juncus arcticus
  • Sago-Pondweed - Potamogeton pectinatus

Plant Communities on Outcrop Ridges

Lichen-Health Community

  • Red Bearberry - Arctostaphylos alpina
  • Alpine Milk-Vetch - Astragalus alpinus
  • White Mountain-Avens - Dryas integrifolia
  • Black Crowberry - Empetrum nigrum
  • Alpine Azalea - Loiseleuria procumbens
  • Lapland Lousewort - Pedicularis lapponica
  • Lapland Rose-Bay - Rhododendron lapponicum
  • Snow Willow - Salix reticulata
  • Alpine Bilberry - Vaccinium uliginosum
  • Dry-Ground Cranberry - Vaccinium vitis-idaea

Ledge and Crevice Rock Communities

  • Bog-Rosemary - Andromeda polifolia
  • Moon Fern - Botrychium lunaria
  • Alpine Bluebell - Campanula uniflora
  • Fragile Fern - Cystopteris fragilis
  • Hoary Whitlow-Grass - Draba incana
  • Common Juniper - Juniperus communis
  • Early Sandwort - Minuartia rubella
  • Large-Flowered wintergreen - Pyrola grandiflora
  • One-Sided Wintergreen - Pyrola secunda
  • Northern Blackcurrant - Ribes hudsonianum
  • Snow Willow - Salix reticulata
  • Tufted Saxifrage - Saxifraga caespitosa
  • Three-Toothed Saxifrages - Saxifraga tricuspidata

...Another interesting fact on lichens: The bright orange lichen you see is known by the name "Bird Perch" lichen since it is often found where birds have stood for long periods of time (drawing nutrients out of their droppings.)

White Spruce Shrub Community

  • Velvet Bells - Bartsia alpina
  • Early Coralroot - Corallorhiza trifida
  • Northern Comandra - Geocaulon lividum
  • Small Northern Bog Orchid - Habenaria obtusata
  • One-Flowered Wintergreen - Moneses uniflora
  • Round-Leaved Orchid - Orchis rotundifolia
  • Large and Small Grass of Parnassus - Parnassia palustris
  • White Spruce - Picea glauca
  • Lesser Wintergreen - Pyrola secunda
  • Lapland Lousewort - Pedicularis lapponica
  • Yellowrattle - Rhinanthus borealis
  • Stemless Raspberry - Rubus acaulis
  • Cloudberry - Rubus chamaemorus
  • Three-Leaved Solomon's-Seal - Smilicina trifolia
  • Bog Asphodel - Tofielda pusilla

Plant Communities in Pools and Freshwater Lakes

Learning Vacations - Churchill Northern Studies Centre - Subarctic Research - Churchill Manitoba

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Submerged and Floating Plants

  • Mare's Tails - Hippuris vulgaris
  • Spiked Water-Milfoil - Myriophyllum exalbescens
  • Slender-leaved Pondweed - Potamogeton alpinus
  • Narrow-Leaved Bur-Reed - Parganium hyperboreum
  • Northern Water-Starwort - Stellaria longipes

Marginal or Partly Submerged Plants

  • Northern Water-Starwort - Callitriche hermaphroditica
  • Water-Hemlock - Cicuta mackenzieana
  • Creeping Spike Rush - Eleocharis palustris
  • Common Cotton Grass - Eriophorum angustifolium
  • Baltic Rush - Juncus balticus
  • Marsh Ragwort - Senecio congestus
  • Northern Bur-Reed - Sparganium hyperboreum

Plant Communities of the Plain

Ice Ridge Communities

  • Yellow Anenome - Anemone richardsonii
  • Dwarf Birch - Betula glandulosa
  • Water Sedge - Carex aquatilis
  • Swamp Horsetail - Equisetum arvense
  • One Spike Cotton-Grass - Eriophorum scheuchzeri
  • Buck-Bean - Menyanthes trifoliata
  • Sweet Gale - Myrica gale
  • Myrtle-Leaved - Salix myrtillifolia
  • Lime Willows - Salix lanata

Hummocky Bog and Muskeg Communities

  • Bog Rosemary - Andromeda polifolia
  • Meadow Bitter Cress - Cardamine pratensis
  • Northern Stitchwort - Honckenya peploides
  • Bog Laurel - Kalmia poliflia
  • Labrador Tea - Ledum decumbens
  • Swamp Cranberry - Oxycoccus microcarpus
  • Sweet Gale - Myrica gale
  • Flame-Coloured Lousewort - Pedicularis flammea
  • Purple Rattle - Pedicularis sudetica
  • Cloudberry - Rubus chamaemorus
  • Bog and Yellow Marsh Saxifrage - Saxifraga hirculus
  • Tufted Bulrush - Scirpus caespitosus
  • Marsh and Seaside Arrow-Grasses - Triglochin maritima

Black Spruce-Larch Forest Community

  • Early Coralroot - Corallorhiza trifida
  • Green-Flowered Bog Orchid - Habenaria hyperborea
  • Bog Laurel - Kalmia poliflia
  • Labrador Tea - Ledum decumbens
  • Stiff Club-Moss - Lycopodium annotinum
  • Cloudberry - Rubus chamaemorus
  • Alpine Bilberry - Vaccinium uliginosum

Freshwater Meadow-Marsh Communities

  • Water Sedge - Carex aquatilix
  • Common Mare's tail - Hippuris vulgaris
  • Duckweed - Lemna spp.
  • Buck-Bean - Menyanthes trifoliata
  • Marsh Cinquefoil - Potentilla palustris

Plant Communities of the Gravel Ridges

Lichen-Heath Communities

  • Yarrow - Achillea nigrescens
  • Cut-Leaved Anenome - Anemone multifida
  • Red and Alpine bearberries - Arctostaphylos alpina
  • Alpine Arnica - Arnica alpina
  • Hoary Draba - Draba incana
  • White Mountain-Avens - Dryas integrifolia
  • Alpine Bistort - Polygonum viviparum
  • Purple Saxifrage - Saxifraga oppositifolia
  • Canada Buffaloberry - Shepherdia canadensis
  • Lacerate Dandelion - Taraxacum lacerum

Sedge Meadow Community

  • Northern Bog Sedge - Carex gynocrates
  • Scant Sedge - Carex rariflora
  • Swamp Cranberry - Oxycoccus microcarpus
  • Flame-Coloured Lousewort - Pedicularis flammea
  • Arrow-leaved Colt's-Foot - Petasites sagittatus
  • Arctic Blue Grass - Poa arctica
  • Greenland Primrose - Primula egalikensis
  • Lapland Buttercup - Ranunculus lapponicus
  • Yellow Marsh Saxifrage - Saxifraga hirculus
  • Seaside Arrow-Cross - Triglochin maritima

Taiga (Willow-Birch Shrub) Community

  • Green Alder - Alnus crispa
  • Dwarf Birch - Betula glandulosa
  • Marsh Reed Grass - Calamagrostis canadensis
  • Baltic Rush - Juncus balticus
  • Sweet Gale - Myrica gale
  • Short-Capsuled Willow - Salix brachycarpa
  • Hoary Willow - Salix candida
  • Flat-Leaved Willow - Salix planifolia

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